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Hematuria Symptoms, Signs of Hematuria

hematuria symptoms
  • Painful Urination:

Painful urination, or dysuria, is a broad term that is used to describe discomfort or pain during urination. This pain may be felt in the lower abdomen, the bladder (in the middle of the lower abdomen), or the perineum (area between the anus and the scrotum or vulva). It’s a symptom that can be linked to various underlying conditions.

One of the most common causes of painful urination is a urinary tract infection (UTI). UTIs occur when bacteria enter the urethra and travel up into the bladder. If the infection continues up to the kidneys, it can cause a kidney infection, which can be a serious condition. The body often responds to such infections by causing inflammation and swelling, which can make urination painful.

Another potential cause of painful urination is bladder stones. These are hard accumulations of minerals that form in the bladder when it’s not completely emptied. The stones can cause irritation and sometimes block the flow of urine, causing pain.

Other causes of dysuria include sexually transmitted infections, such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, or herpes. The inflammation caused by these infections can make urination painful.

Painful urination can also be a symptom of bladder inflammation, a condition known as cystitis. This can be caused by infection, bladder stones, or interstitial cystitis (a chronic problem), and sometimes the cause is unknown.

In men, painful urination can also be caused by conditions such as prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, or an enlarged prostate), or prostate cancer.

In women, painful urination can be caused by vaginal infections, such as yeast infections or bacterial vaginosis, or by conditions, such as vulvodynia.

The treatment for painful urination depends on the underlying cause. For example, UTIs are usually treated with antibiotics, while medications to reduce the size of the prostate or surgical procedures might be necessary for treating BPH.

It’s crucial for anyone experiencing painful urination to seek medical attention, as this symptom can be linked to various medical conditions that require treatment.

  1. Lower Abdominal Pain:

Lower abdominal pain is a common symptom that can be associated with a variety of conditions, many of which can cause hematuria. This pain can range from a dull ache to severe discomfort and can be constant or intermittent. It can also be associated with other symptoms, like bloating, diarrhea, nausea, or changes in bowel movements.

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) often cause lower abdominal pain. These infections occur when bacteria enter the urinary tract and can cause inflammation and swelling, leading to discomfort or pain in the lower abdomen.

Kidney stones, another common cause of hematuria, can also cause severe lower abdominal pain. These stones are hard deposits of minerals and salts that form inside the kidneys. If a stone becomes lodged in a ureter (the tube that connects a kidney to the bladder), it can block the flow of urine and cause intense pain.

Cystitis, an inflammation of the bladder often caused by a urinary tract infection, can also cause lower abdominal pain. In some cases, cystitis can be caused by certain medications, radiation therapy, or irritants such as catheters.

Lower abdominal pain in women can also be associated with gynecological issues such as menstrual pain, ovarian cysts, endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, or ectopic pregnancy.

Men can experience lower abdominal pain due to conditions like prostatitis, epididymitis, or testicular torsion.

A healthcare professional will typically diagnose the cause of lower abdominal pain through a combination of a physical examination, medical history, and possibly other diagnostic tests like imaging studies or laboratory tests. The treatment for lower abdominal pain will depend on its cause. For example, antibiotics can be used to treat a UTI or prostatitis, while pain relievers and drinking plenty of water might be recommended for small kidney stones.

Lower abdominal pain can indicate a variety of conditions, some of which can be serious. Therefore, it’s important to seek medical attention if you’re experiencing persistent or severe lower abdominal pain, especially if it’s accompanied by other symptoms such as hematuria.

  1. Frequent Urination:

Frequent urination, or the need to urinate more than usual, can be another symptom of conditions that cause hematuria. This symptom can be due to an increased production of urine, decreased capacity of the bladder, or a sudden urge to urinate.

Several conditions can cause frequent urination, including urinary tract infections and bladder or kidney infections. These infections can cause inflammation and swelling that may make the bladder feel full, leading to a frequent need to urinate.

Diabetes can also cause frequent urination as excess sugar in the bloodstream can lead to increased urine production. Interstitial cystitis, also known as painful bladder syndrome, can lead to discomfort or pain in the bladder and a frequent need to urinate.

Certain medications, such as diuretics used to treat high blood pressure, can also cause frequent urination. Conditions like an enlarged prostate in men or prolapse of the bladder in women can also lead to this symptom.

To diagnose the cause of frequent urination, a healthcare provider may use urine tests to check for infections or sugar levels, blood tests, ultrasound, or other imaging tests. The treatment for frequent urination will depend on the cause. For example, UTIs are typically treated with antibiotics, while lifestyle changes and medications may be recommended for interstitial cystitis.

Frequent urination can be inconvenient and affect a person’s quality of life. It’s important to seek medical care if this symptom persists or if it’s accompanied by other symptoms such as pain, fever, weight loss, or hematuria.

  1. Urine that’s Cloudy:

Cloudy urine can indicate the presence of protein, pus, blood, or crystals in the urine, which can all be symptoms of various underlying health conditions. Certain substances or infections can cause the urine to look murky or cloudy rather than clear.

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common cause of cloudy urine. These infections occur when bacteria enter the urinary tract, leading to inflammation and an increased white blood cell count. The white blood cells and the bacteria can give the urine a cloudy appearance.

Kidney stones or bladder stones can also lead to cloudy urine. These stones form when substances in the urine, such as calcium and oxalate, become too concentrated and begin to crystallize. The crystals can eventually develop into stones, which can cause urine to become cloudy.

Certain sexually transmitted infections (STIs), like gonorrhea and chlamydia, can also cause cloudy urine, especially in men. These infections can cause inflammation and discharge, which may mix with the urine and give it a cloudy appearance.

A healthcare provider can usually diagnose the cause of cloudy urine using urine tests to check for the presence of bacteria, protein, or other substances. The treatment for cloudy urine will depend on the cause. UTIs, for example, are typically treated with antibiotics, while treatment for kidney stones may involve drinking more water, medication, or in some cases, surgery.

Cloudy urine can sometimes be a symptom of serious health conditions, including kidney disease or bladder cancer, especially when accompanied by other symptoms like hematuria. Therefore, it’s important to seek medical attention if you notice your urine is frequently cloudy or if you have other symptoms like pain or frequent urination.

  1. Feeling of Incomplete Bladder Emptying:

A feeling of incomplete bladder emptying is a common symptom of several conditions that can cause hematuria. This symptom can occur when the bladder doesn’t empty completely during urination. This can lead to discomfort and an increased urge to urinate, even immediately after urination.

Bladder stones can cause a feeling of incomplete bladder emptying. These stones can obstruct the flow of urine and make it difficult for the bladder to empty fully.

Urinary tract infections can also cause this symptom. These infections can cause inflammation in the bladder, making it feel as though it’s not completely empty.

Prostate enlargement, a condition common in older men, can also lead to a feeling of incomplete bladder emptying. The enlarged prostate can compress the urethra, making it difficult for urine to pass.

Certain neurological conditions, such as stroke or multiple sclerosis, can affect the nerves that control bladder function, leading to a feeling of incomplete bladder emptying.

A healthcare provider can typically diagnose this symptom’s cause through a physical examination, medical history, and other diagnostic tests like a post-void residual measurement test or ultrasound. Treatment will depend on the cause. For example, antibiotics can be used to treat a UTI, while medication or surgery might be necessary for an enlarged prostate.

This feeling can be uncomfortable and lead to other issues like UTIs or kidney problems if the bladder isn’t emptied fully over a long period. Therefore, it’s crucial to seek medical attention if you’re experiencing this symptom, especially if it’s accompanied by hematuria or other symptoms.

  1. Urinary Urgency:

Urinary urgency is characterized by a sudden, intense urge to urinate. Various conditions can cause this symptom and can often be linked with hematuria. Urinary urgency can lead to frequent trips to the bathroom, disrupt daily activities, and contribute to anxiety and sleep disturbances.

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) can cause urinary urgency as the inflammation triggered by the infection can make the bladder more sensitive and cause it to contract even when it’s not full, leading to a sudden need to urinate.

Overactive bladder syndrome is another common cause of urinary urgency. This condition happens when the muscles of the bladder contract involuntarily, even when the volume of urine in your bladder is low.

Interstitial cystitis, also known as painful bladder syndrome, can lead to urinary urgency. This chronic bladder condition causes feelings of pain and pressure in the bladder area, along with a frequent urge to urinate.

Prostate problems in men, such as an enlarged prostate or prostate cancer, can press on the urethra, leading to urinary urgency.

Identifying the underlying cause of urinary urgency typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests, such as urine, bladder function, and imaging tests. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and might include medications, pelvic floor exercises, bladder training, and, in severe cases, surgery.

Urinary urgency can significantly impact a person’s quality of life. Therefore, it’s crucial to seek medical attention if you’re experiencing this symptom, especially if it’s accompanied by hematuria or other concerning symptoms.

  1. Kidney Pain:

Kidney pain is often felt in the back or side below the rib cage or can be felt in the lower abdomen and groin area. The pain may be sharp or dull and can vary in intensity. Kidney pain can be a symptom of various health conditions, including several that can cause hematuria.

Kidney stones are a common cause of kidney pain. These hard deposits are formed from minerals and salts that crystallize in the kidneys and can cause severe pain when they pass into the ureters.

Pyelonephritis, a type of kidney infection, can also cause kidney pain. This condition usually happens as a complication of a urinary tract infection that has spread from the bladder to the kidneys.

Kidney cysts, polycystic kidney disease, and kidney cancer can also cause kidney pain.

Diagnosis of the cause of kidney pain typically involves a physical examination, medical history, urine tests, blood tests, and imaging tests like ultrasound or CT scan. Treatment will depend on the cause and may include antibiotics for infections, medication or procedures to help pass or remove kidney stones, and potentially surgery for cysts or cancer.

Kidney pain can be a sign of serious health conditions, so it’s crucial to seek medical attention if you’re experiencing this symptom, especially if it’s accompanied by hematuria or other concerning symptoms.

  1. High Blood Pressure:

High blood pressure, also known as hypertension, is a condition in which the force of blood against your artery walls is consistently too high. This condition often does not have noticeable symptoms but can be related to hematuria if there’s kidney or urinary tract damage.

Kidney disease is a common cause of high blood pressure. Damaged kidneys may not effectively filter out fluid and waste from your blood, which can accumulate and cause high blood pressure. In addition, kidney disease can disrupt the balance of salts and minerals that control blood pressure.

In turn, high blood pressure can also damage the kidneys. Hypertension can harm the blood vessels in the kidneys, affecting their ability to filter blood effectively. Over time, this can lead to blood in the urine.

Preeclampsia is a condition that can occur during pregnancy and is characterized by high blood pressure and damage to organs such as the liver and kidneys, often resulting in protein in the urine or other symptoms, including hematuria.

Diagnosis of high blood pressure involves regular blood pressure measurements. If the pressure remains consistently high, your healthcare provider may recommend tests to identify the cause, such as urine, kidney function, and blood tests. Treatment usually involves lifestyle modifications and antihypertensive medications.

Maintaining regular check-ups if you have high blood pressure is essential, as it can lead to critical complications if left untreated. If you notice blood in your urine and high blood pressure, consult your healthcare provider promptly.

  1. Fever and Chills:

Fever and chills are common symptoms of an infection and may be associated with hematuria in cases of urinary tract infections or kidney infections. Fever is a natural response to infection, raising your body’s temperature to help fight off invading microbes. Chills often accompany fever as your body tries to raise its temperature.

Pyelonephritis, an infection in the kidneys usually caused by bacteria, can lead to fever, chills, and hematuria. This infection typically starts in the urethra or bladder and progresses to the kidneys if left untreated.

Cystitis, a urinary tract infection affecting the bladder, can also cause fever, chills, and hematuria.

In rare cases, fever and chills with hematuria can signal a severe condition such as sepsis or kidney abscess, which requires immediate medical attention.

Diagnosis usually begins with a physical examination and medical history. Further tests like urine culture, blood tests, and imaging tests like a CT scan or ultrasound may be performed to pinpoint the cause. Treatment typically includes antibiotics to fight off the infection.

It’s crucial to seek immediate medical attention if you’re experiencing fever, chills, and hematuria, as these symptoms could indicate a severe infection or other serious condition.

  1. Unintended Weight Loss:

Unintended weight loss, particularly when accompanied by hematuria, can indicate several serious underlying conditions. Generally, it’s considered unexplained and should be checked out if you lose more than 5% of your body weight in six months to a year without deliberately trying to lose weight.

Hematuria and unintended weight loss may be associated with kidney disease or urinary tract cancer. Kidney disease can lead to decreased appetite and changes in how the body processes nutrients, leading to weight loss. On the other hand, cancer often causes weight loss due to the body’s response to malignant cells or the increased energy demands from rapid cell growth.

Weight loss can also be a symptom of more generalized conditions such as diabetes, liver disease, or even some lung diseases, which can indirectly lead to hematuria.

To diagnose the cause, your healthcare provider may conduct a comprehensive physical exam and inquire about your medical history. Based on initial findings, further investigations like blood tests, urine tests, imaging tests, or even a biopsy may be required.

Treatment generally involves addressing the underlying condition causing the weight loss. This could be dietary modifications, medication, or surgery for malignancies.

To rule out any serious underlying conditions, a healthcare professional should always evaluate unintended weight loss combined with hematuria.

  1. Fatigue:

Fatigue, or an overwhelming sense of tiredness, can be a symptom of many conditions. If you’re experiencing fatigue with hematuria, it could be indicative of underlying issues such as kidney disease or urinary tract infections.

Kidney disease, for instance, can cause a buildup of toxins in your body that your kidneys can’t effectively filter out. This can result in feeling tired or less energetic. Similarly, urinary tract infections can also lead to fatigue due to the body’s energy going toward fighting off the infection.

Furthermore, fatigue can be a symptom of anemia, a condition that can occur if there is blood loss due to hematuria. Anemia can make you feel tired as your body lacks enough healthy red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen to your tissues.

Your healthcare provider can help diagnose the cause of your fatigue and hematuria through a series of tests, including blood tests, urine tests, and imaging studies.

The treatment of fatigue usually focuses on managing the underlying condition causing the symptom. This could involve medications, lifestyle changes, or in some cases, cognitive behavioral therapy.

Fatigue, when experienced with hematuria, warrants medical attention to diagnose and treat the underlying cause.


  1. Appetite Loss:

Appetite loss, when occurring with hematuria, is a concerning symptom that could be indicative of numerous underlying conditions. Many diseases that affect the kidneys, such as kidney infections, kidney stones, or kidney disease, can lead to appetite loss. This is often due to the body’s systemic reaction to these conditions, potentially causing nausea, changes in taste, or a general feeling of unwellness that may reduce the desire to eat.

Moreover, appetite loss can be a sign of more serious conditions such as cancer, including kidney cancer or bladder cancer. The presence of cancerous cells can cause changes in the body’s metabolism, leading to a decreased desire to eat.

Your healthcare provider will likely conduct a detailed physical examination and ask about your medical history if you’re experiencing appetite loss and hematuria. Depending on initial findings, this could be followed by further investigations like blood tests, urine tests, imaging studies, and potentially a biopsy.

Treatment generally focuses on addressing the underlying condition causing the symptoms. Depending on the cause, treatment might include medications to boost appetite, dietary changes, or treatments for the underlying disease, such as surgery or chemotherapy in the case of cancer.

Appetite loss with hematuria is a symptom that should never be ignored as it could indicate a serious underlying condition.

  1. Unusual Color of the Urine:

The presence of blood in the urine, or hematuria, can often cause a change in the urine’s color. The urine may appear pink, red, brownish-red, or even dark, like cola, depending on the blood present. This can occur in both gross and microscopic hematuria.

However, other factors can also contribute to changes in urine color, such as certain medications, foods (like beets or berries), or severe dehydration. Medical conditions like liver disease, urinary tract infections, or severe muscle injury can also change urine color.

If you notice a persistent unusual color in your urine, especially if accompanied by other symptoms, seeking medical attention is essential. Diagnostic tests typically involve a physical examination, urine, blood, and imaging studies, depending on the suspected underlying cause.

Treatment typically involves addressing the cause of the unusual urine color. This could mean changing medications, increasing fluid intake, or treating an underlying medical condition with medications, surgery, or other interventions.

Unusual urine color, especially when accompanied by other symptoms such as hematuria, should always be evaluated by a healthcare professional.

  1. Nausea or Vomiting:

Nausea and vomiting associated with hematuria can be the result of numerous conditions. It’s often a systemic response to infections, inflammation, or other disorders of the urinary system, including kidney, bladder, and urinary tract infections.

Moreover, these symptoms can indicate severe underlying conditions, such as kidney disease, kidney stones, or urinary tract cancers. Nausea and vomiting can also result from the body’s reaction to these diseases or as side effects of the medications used for their treatment.

Healthcare professionals will typically conduct a thorough physical examination and delve into your medical history if you’re experiencing nausea, vomiting, and hematuria. They may also recommend blood tests, urine tests, imaging studies, and possibly a biopsy based on the initial findings.

The primary focus of treatment will generally be on the underlying condition causing these symptoms. The therapeutic approach could involve dietary changes, anti-nausea medications, antibiotics, or treatments for the causative disease, like surgical interventions or chemotherapy in the case of cancer.

Hence, any instance of nausea or vomiting accompanied by hematuria should prompt immediate medical attention as it could be indicative of serious health issues.

  1. Urinary Incontinence:

Urinary incontinence, a condition characterized by the loss of bladder control, can sometimes accompany hematuria. Common causes are bladder infections, bladder stones, or bladder inflammation, leading to urgency, frequency, and incontinence symptoms. In more serious cases, bladder cancer may also present with hematuria and urinary incontinence.

Additionally, certain neurological conditions like stroke, spinal cord injury, Parkinson’s disease, or multiple sclerosis can cause urinary incontinence and hematuria due to their impact on the nerves that control bladder function.

When experiencing urinary incontinence along with hematuria, your healthcare provider will undertake a detailed examination, taking into account your medical history. This could be followed by more specific tests like blood tests, urine tests, imaging studies, urodynamic tests, and possibly a cystoscopy.

Treatment will mainly target the root cause of the symptoms and may include medications, pelvic floor exercises, bladder training, surgical interventions, or devices like catheters. In cases of cancer, chemotherapy or radiation therapy may be necessary.

Urinary incontinence alongside hematuria should always be taken seriously, as it might be a symptom of a significant underlying condition.

  1. Difficulty in Starting Urination:

Experiencing difficulty starting urination, also known as urinary hesitancy, alongside hematuria, can be a symptom of several urinary tract problems. This could be due to an enlarged prostate, urinary tract infections, bladder or kidney stones, or urinary tract cancers. Conditions like diabetes, multiple sclerosis, or stroke that impact nerve functions can also cause these symptoms.

When diagnosing this condition, healthcare providers will look at your medical history, conduct a physical examination, and perform various tests such as blood tests, urine tests, and imaging studies. For males, a digital rectal examination might be done to assess the size of the prostate.

Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying condition causing the symptoms. Depending on the root cause, this might involve antibiotics for infections, medication or surgery for an enlarged prostate, or treatments like chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery in cases of cancer.

Difficulty in starting urination in conjunction with hematuria should not be ignored. It is important to consult a healthcare provider promptly as these symptoms might indicate a severe health problem.

  1. Dribbling at the End of Urination:

Dribbling at the end of urination is another symptom that can be observed with hematuria. Causes can range from urinary tract infections, bladder stones, prostatic hyperplasia (in men), or urethral stricture to more serious causes such as bladder, prostate, or kidney cancer.

The diagnostic process involves taking a detailed medical history, performing a thorough physical examination, and conducting additional tests such as urinalysis, blood tests, and imaging tests. Men may also have a prostate examination. In some cases, uroflowmetry (to measure the volume and speed of urine flow) or post-void residual measurement (to assess the amount of urine left in the bladder after urination) may be performed.

Treatment will target the underlying issue and may range from medication for infections or enlarged prostate, catheterization or surgery for urinary retention, or cancer therapies for malignancies.

If you observe dribbling at the end of urination along with hematuria, seek immediate medical attention as it could be indicative of significant health issues.

  1. Night-time Urination:

Nocturia, or night-time urination, occurring along with hematuria can be indicative of numerous health issues. This might be related to urinary tract infections, bladder stones, kidney or bladder dysfunction, or prostate problems in men. It could also be due to conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, or sleep disorders.

The diagnosis of nocturia and hematuria involves the patient’s medical history, a physical exam, and various tests such as urinalysis, blood tests, ultrasound or other imaging studies. The treatment typically focuses on managing the underlying cause, which could range from antibiotics for infections, medications for heart disease or diabetes, or potentially surgery or other treatments for more serious problems like cancer.

If you’re experiencing frequent urination at night along with hematuria, it’s essential to seek medical advice promptly as these symptoms could suggest a serious medical condition.

  1. Pelvic Pain:

Pelvic pain accompanying hematuria could be due to several factors, including urinary tract infections, kidney stones, bladder stones, interstitial cystitis (a chronic condition causing bladder pressure and pain), or in severe cases, cancers of the bladder, kidney, or prostate.

Diagnosing these conditions would typically involve reviewing the patient’s medical history, a thorough physical examination, and conducting necessary tests like urine, blood, imaging, and, in some instances, a cystoscopy. Treatment is generally targeted at the underlying cause and could involve antibiotics for infections, pain management strategies for interstitial cystitis, or more aggressive approaches such as surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy in cases of cancer.

Experiencing pelvic pain with hematuria warrants immediate medical attention as it could indicate a serious underlying health issue.

  1. Swelling of the Legs and Ankles:

Swelling of the legs and ankles (edema) along with hematuria may suggest kidney problems, heart disease, or liver disease. This swelling happens when tiny blood vessels leak fluid into nearby tissues, which may be exacerbated by kidney disease, resulting in hematuria.

Diagnosing these conditions involves medical history evaluation, physical examination, and tests, including urine and blood tests, imaging studies, and possibly kidney function tests. The treatment generally involves addressing the root cause, which could mean medications for heart or liver disease, dialysis or kidney transplantation for advanced kidney disease.

If you notice swelling of the legs and ankles alongside hematuria, seek immediate medical attention, as it could signal severe health conditions.

References:

  1. Symptoms of Hematuria: Mayo Clinic
  2. Understanding Hematuria: MedlinePlus
  3. Urinary Symptoms and Hematuria: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
  4. Hematuria: Symptoms and Causes: American Kidney Fund
  5. Hematuria: Symptoms and Diagnosis: Cleveland Clinic

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Disclaimer: This content is for informational purposes only and does not substitute professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website.                                      

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Tanzir Islam Britto

My name is Tanzir Islam Britto. Professionally I am a Physician, an amateur writer, and an engaged social media activist. My journey in the field of medicine began at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical College (BSMMC), formerly known as Faridpur Medical College, where I started my Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS), which I have completed at Shahabuddin Medical College(SMC).

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